Slow 0.1 Hz Breathing and Body Posture Induced Perturbations of RRI and Respiratory Signal Complexity and Cardiorespiratory Coupling
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Objective: We explored the physiological background of the non-linear operating mode of cardiorespiratory oscillators as the fundamental question of cardiorespiratory homeodynamics and as a prerequisite for the understanding of neurocardiovascular diseases. We investigated 20 healthy human subjects for changes using electrocardiac RR interval (RRI) and respiratory signal (Resp) Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA, α1RRI, α2RRI, α1Resp, α2Resp), Multiple Scaling Entropy (MSERRI1−4, MSERRI5−10, MSEResp1−4, MSEResp5−10), spectral coherence (CohRRI−Resp), cross DFA (ρ1 and ρ2) and cross MSE (XMSE1−4 and XMSE5−10) indices in four physiological conditions: supine with spontaneous breathing, standing with spontaneous breathing, supine with 0.1 Hz breathing and standing with 0.1 Hz breathing. Main results: Standing is primarily characterized by the change of RRI parameters, insensitivity to change with respiratory parameters, decrease of CohRRI−Resp and insensitivity to change of in ρ1, ρ2, XM...SE1−4, and XMSE5−10. Slow breathing in supine position was characterized by the change of the linear and non-linear parameters of both signals, reflecting the dominant vagal RRI modulation and the impact of slow 0.1 Hz breathing on Resp parameters. CohRRI−Resp did not change with respect to supine position, while ρ1 increased. Slow breathing in standing reflected the qualitatively specific state of autonomic regulation with striking impact on both cardiac and respiratory parameters, with specific patterns of cardiorespiratory coupling. Significance: Our results show that cardiac and respiratory short term and long term complexity parameters have different, state dependent patterns. Sympathovagal non-linear interactions are dependent on the pattern of their activation, having different scaling properties when individually activated with respect to the state of their joint activation. All investigated states induced a change of α1 vs. α2 relationship, which can be accurately expressed by the proposed measure—inter-fractal angle θ. Short scale (α1 vs. MSE1−4) and long scale (α2 vs. MSE5−10) complexity measures had reciprocal interrelation in standing with 0.1 Hz breathing, with specific cardiorespiratory coupling pattern (ρ1 vs. XMSE1−4). These results support the hypothesis of hierarchical organization of cardiorespiratory complexity mechanisms and their recruitment in ascendant manner with respect to the increase of behavioral challenge complexity. Specific and comprehensive cardiorespiratory regulation in standing with 0.1 Hz breathing suggests this state as the potentially most beneficial maneuver for cardiorespiratory conditioning. © Copyright © 2020 Matić, Platiša, Kalauzi and Bojić.
Keywords:complexity / RR interval variability / respiration rhythm variability / cardiorespiratory coupling / slow breathing / orthostasis
Source:Frontiers in Physiology, 2020, 11, 24-
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