Conjugates of Gold Nanoparticles and Antitumor Gold(III) Complexes as a Tool for Their AFM and SERS Detection in Biological Tissue
Vasić Anićijević, Dragana D.
Vasić, Vesna M.
Article (Published version)
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Citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were functionalized with three distinct antitumor gold(III) complexes, e.g., [Au(N,N)(OH)2][PF6], where (N,N)=2,2′-bipyridine; [Au(C,N)(AcO)2], where (C,N)=deprotonated 6-(1,1-dimethylbenzyl)-pyridine; [Au(C,N,N)(OH)][PF6], where (C,N,N)=deprotonated 6-(1,1-dimethylbenzyl)-2,2′-bipyridine, to assess the chance of tracking their subcellular distribution by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) techniques. An extensive physicochemical characterization of the formed conjugates was, thus, carried out by applying a variety of methods (density functional theory—DFT, UV/Vis spectrophotometry, AFM, Raman spectroscopy, and SERS). The resulting gold(III) complexes/AuNPs conjugates turned out to be pretty stable. Interestingly, they exhibited a dramatically increased resonance intensity in the Raman spectra induced by AuNPs. For testing the use of the functionalized AuNPs for biosensing, their distribution in the nu...clear, cytosolic, and membrane cell fractions obtained from human lymphocytes was investigated by AFM and SERS. The conjugates were detected in the membrane and nuclear cell fractions but not in the cytosol. The AFM method confirmed that conjugates induced changes in the morphology and nanostructure of the membrane and nuclear fractions. The obtained results point out that the conjugates formed between AuNPs and gold(III) complexes may be used as a tool for tracking metallodrug distribution in the different cell fractions.