Global DNA Methylation as a Potential Underlying Mechanism of Congenital Disease Development
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During the last decade, quantitative measurement of the methylation status in white blood cells (WBCs) has been used as a potential biomarker in a variety of diseases. Long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) has been used widely as a surrogate marker of global DNA methylation. Altered maternal DNA methylation is suggested to be an underlying mechanism in the trisomy 21 and the development of birth defects, including congenital heart defects (CHDs). The molecular mechanisms that underlie the epigenetic regulation of gene transcription are independent of DNA sequence, but they do depend on environmental stimuli, which are especially important in fetal development in utero environment. Folic acid deficiency and genetic variations of folate pathway genes, such as the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR), are foremost among these maternal risk factors. Also, there are exogenous risk factors (cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, medication use, periconceptional maternal sup...plementation, body mass index, and dietary habits) with impact on maternal LINE-1 methylation. MTHFR C677T genotype/diet and other environmental factors as significant predictors of LINE-1 DNA methylation in regard to congenital diseases will be discussed in the chapter.
Keywords:DNA methylation / LINE-1 / congenital anomaly / development / nutrition / folate intake / genotype
Source:DNA Methylation Mechanism, 2020, Ch. 3, 1-21
- Chapter of the book "DNA Methylation Mechanism" https://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.78125