Rare-earth (Gd3+,Yb3+/Tm3+, Eu3+) co-doped hydroxyapatite as magnetic, up-conversion and down-conversion materials for multimodal imaging
AuthorsIgnjatović, Nenad L.
Stojanović, Zoran S.
Nikolić, Marko G.
Škapin, Srečo Davor
Veselinović, Ljiljana M.
Lazarević, Miloš M.
Article (Published version)
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Taking advantage of the flexibility of the apatite structure, nano- and micro-particles of hydroxyapatite (HAp) were doped with different combinations of rare earth ions (RE3+ = Gd, Eu, Yb, Tm) to achieve a synergy among their magnetic and optical properties and to enable their application in preventive medicine, particularly diagnostics based on multimodal imaging. All powders were synthesized through hydrothermal processing at T ≤ 200 °C. An X-ray powder diffraction analysis showed that all powders crystallized in P63/m space group of the hexagonal crystal structure. The refined unit-cell parameters reflected a decrease in the unit cell volume as a result of the partial substitution of Ca2+ with smaller RE3+ ions at both cation positions. The FTIR analysis additionally suggested that a synergy may exist solely in the triply doped system, where the lattice symmetry and vibration modes become more coherent than in the singly or doubly doped systems. HAp:RE3+ optical characterization re...vealed a change in the energy band gap and the appearance of a weak blue luminescence (λex = 370 nm) due to an increased concentration of defects. The “up”- and the “down”-conversion spectra of HAp:Gd/Yb/Tm and HAp:Gd/Eu powders showed characteristic transitions of Tm3+ and Eu3+, respectively. Furthermore, in contrast to diamagnetic HAp, all HAp:RE3+ powders exhibited paramagnetic behavior. Cell viability tests of HAp:Gd/Yb/Tm and HAp:Gd/Eu powders in human dental pulp stem cell cultures indicated their good biocompatibility. © 2019, The Author(s).
Source:Scientific Reports, 2019, 9, 1, 16305-
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