Production of food-grade multiple emulsions with high encapsulation yield using oscillating membrane emulsification
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Food-grade water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) multiple emulsions with a volume median diameter of outer droplets of 50-210 mu m were produced by injecting a water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion at the flux of 30 L m(-2) h(-1) through a 10-mu m pore electroplated nickel membrane oscillating at 10-90 Hz frequency and 0.1-5 mm amplitude in 2 wt% aqueous Tween(R) 20 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate) solution. The oil phase in the primary W/O emulsion was 5 wt% PGPR (polyglycerol polyricinoleate) dissolved in sunflower oil and the content of water phase in the W/O emulsion was 30 vol%. The size of outer droplets was precisely controlled by the amplitude and frequency of membrane oscillation. Only 3-5% of the inner droplets with a mean diameter of 0.54 mu m were released into the outer aqueous phase during membrane emulsification. A sustained release of 200 ppm copper (II) loaded in the inner aqueous phase was investigated over 7 days. 95% of Cu(II) initially present in the inner water phase was rele...ased in the first 2 days from 56-mu m diameter multiple emulsion droplets and less than 15% of Cu(II) was released over the same interval from 122 mu m droplets. The release rate of Cu(II) decreased with increasing the size of outer droplets and followed non-zero-order kinetics with a release exponent of 0.3-0.5. The prepared multiple emulsions can be used for controlled release of hydrophilic actives in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industry. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords:Multiple emulsion / Oscillating membrane / Sustained release / Membrane emulsification / Microencapsulation
Source:Colloids and Surfaces. A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 2014, 458, 78-84
- 7th Formula Conference, Jul 01-04, 2013, Mulhouse, France