Clastogenic Effect of Atranorin, Evernic acid, and Usnic Acid on Human Lymphocytes
AuthorsStojanovic, Gordana S.
Stojanovic, Igor Z.
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Three lichen secondary metabolites atranorin (1), evernic acid (2), and usnic acid (3), were evaluated for their in vitro clastogenic and antiproliferative effects on human lymphocytes using the cytochalasin-B blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay at concentrations of 2 mu g/mL, 4 mu g/mL and 6 mu g/mL of final culture solution. The frequency of micronucleus (MN) was scored in binucleated cells, and cytokinesis-block proliferation index (CBPI) was calculated. Among the tested compounds, 3 exhibited the most prominent effect decreasing the frequency of MN in the range of 42.5% - 48.9%, that is about double of the positive control amifostin WR-2721 that reduces MN frequency for 22.0%. The effect of evernic acid was approximately equal to action of amifostin (23.2% -32.9%). Atranorin at concentrations of 2 mu g/mL and 4 mu g/mL decreasing the frequency of MN only for 11.1% and 1.8%, while in concentration of 6 mu g/mL increases the frequency of MN for 9.6 %. The comparable CBPI values of the ...investigated compounds and control suggested that they did not show a statistically significant inhibitory effect on lymphocyte cell proliferation at applied concentrations.