Radiation-Associated Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Thyroid: A Case Report with Molecular Analyses
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Background: Neuroendocrine tumor (NET) of the thyroid other than medullary carcinoma is extremely rare. We describe here a case of calcitonin-negative small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNEC), which occurred in a thyroid gland that had previously been irradiated at high dose (60Gy) for pharyngeal cancer, with molecular analyses for follicular cell origin. Patient Findings: The tumor cells were small with fine chromatin, inconspicuous nucleoli, and inapparent cytoplasm, and showed neuroendocrine architectures such as palisading, rosettes, and trabeculae. Mitotic figures were numerous exceeding 10 mitoses per 10 high-power fields. The tumor cells invaded into several vessels and metastasized to regional lymph nodes. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were strongly positive for neuroendocrine markers and thyroglobulin (Tg), a marker of thyroid follicular cells but negative for calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Expression of Tg and thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) were confi...rmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Ki-67 labeling index was more than 70% in the tumor cells. Taken together, the tumor was diagnosed as SCNEC of the thyroid. Genetic analyses also revealed microsatellite abnormalities of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene, suggesting that functional loss of PTEN contributes to carcinogenesis. Conclusions: This is the first report describing a SCNEC of the thyroid with molecular analyses that provide evidence for a follicular epithelial origin.
Source:Thyroid, 2014, 24, 3, 593-598
- Nagasaki University Global Center of Excellence (COE) program Global Strategic Center for Radiation Health Risk Control, Japanese Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture