Modification of high density polyethylene by gold implantation using different ion energies
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High density polyethylene (HDPE) samples were modified by Au+ ion implantation at a dose of 5 x 10(15) ions cm(-2), using energies of 50, 100, 150 and 200 keV. The existence of implanted gold in the near-surface region of HDPE samples was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Surface roughness and Power Spectral Density analyses based on Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) images of the surface topography revealed that the mechanism of HDPE modification during gold ion implantation depended on the energy of gold ions. Histograms obtained from phase AFM images indicated a qualitative change in the chemical composition of the surface during implantation with gold ions with different energies. Depth profiles obtained experimentally from cross-sectional Force Modulation Microscopy images and ones obtained from a theoretical simulation are in agreement for gold ions energies lower than 100 keV. The deviation that was observed for higher energies of the gold ions is explained by carbon precipit...ation in the near surface region of the HDPE, which prevented the penetration of gold ions further into the depth of the sample. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.