Graphene quantum dots as autophagy-inducing photodynamic agents
AuthorsMarković, Zoran M.
Ristic, Biljana Z.
Arsikin, Katarina M.
Klisic, Djordje G.
Harhaji-Trajković, Ljubica M.
Kepić, Dejan P.
Kravić-Stevović, Tamara K.
Jovanović, Svetlana P.
Milenkovic, Marina M.
Bumbaširević, Vladimir Ž.
Trajković, Vladimir S.
MetadataShow full item record
The excellent photoluminescent properties of graphene quantum dots (GQD) makes them suitable candidates for biomedical applications, but their cytotoxicity has not been extensively studied. Here we show that electrochemically produced GQD irradiated with blue light (470 nm, 1 W) generate reactive oxygen species, including singlet oxygen, and kill U251 human glioma cells by causing oxidative stress. The cell death induced by photoexcited GQD displayed morphological and/or biochemical characteristics of both apoptosis (phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase activation. DNA fragmentation) and autophagy (formation of autophagic vesicles, LC3-I/LC3-II conversion, degradation of autophagic target p62). Moreover, a genetic inactivation of autophagy-essential LOB protein partly abrogated the photodynamic cytotoxicity of GQD. These data indicate potential usefulness of GQD in photodynamic therapy, but also raise concerns about their possible toxicity. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights rese...rved.
Keywords:Carbon / Nanoparticle / Photosensitisation / Cytotoxicity / Apoptosis
Source:Biomaterials, 2012, 33, 29, 7084-7092
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