Quantum phase for an arbitrary system with finite-dimensional Hilbert space
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A representation of the phase observable in terms of a positive-operator-valued measure for an arbitrary quantum system with a finite Hilbert space is consistently defined. The phase for systems with rational relations between the energy eigenvalue differences is treated explicitly and the phase in the case of the irrational relations is obtained as a well-defined limit of the rational approximations.
Source:Physical Review A, 2012, 85, 4
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