Metal contamination of short-term snow cover near urban crossroads: Correlation analysis of metal content and fine particles distribution
AuthorsVasic, Milica Vucinic
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Snow samples were collected near crossroads in Novi Sad, Serbia, during December 2009 to assess metal concentrations (Ca, K, Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Al, Pb and Na), fine particle distribution and pH value. The filtered samples of melted snow were analysed, with a focus on particles smaller than a few mu m. The most common values of the frequency number distribution curve were either in the range of 0.05-0.07 mu m or one order of magnitude higher (mu m). At examined locations metal concentrations varied from 0.0004 mg L-1 for Pb to 18.9 mg L-1 for Na. Besides Na, which mostly originated from de-icing salt, Ca is found to be the most abundant element in snow indicating the dominant influence of natural factors on snow chemistry. No significant difference was found in concentration of the elements at locations near crossroads with either low or high traffic volume, except for Na and Zn. To investigate how metals were related a correlation analysis was done for the concentrations of metals and wit...h respect to the particle size distribution parameters and pH values. The major influence on the fine particle volume (mass) was concluded to be due to the elements from anthropogenic sources. This conclusion was based on the significant positive correlation between Fe, Zn and Al and the fine particle volume based distribution parameters. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.