A study of Roman glass from Mala Barutana/Belgrade Fortress irradiated with pulsed CO2, Nd:YAG and ruby laser - Comparison
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Application of non-contact and rapid laser technique, which is minimally invasive, non-contaminant and efficient method, for ancient glass investigation and cleaning is highly desirable for restoration purposes. Irradiation of Roman glass dated from 1st to 4th/5th century AD with TEA CO2 (wavelength 10.6 mu m; pulse duration t(p) = 100 ns), Nd:YAG (wavelength 1064 nm and 532 nm; t(p)= 150 ps) and ruby laser (wavelength 694 nm; t(p) = 30 ns) in air ambience was studied. For all three lasers, moderate energy densities (15-30 J/cm(2)) induced significant changes of morphology - from superficial exfoliation and occurrence of mosaic structure after few pulses to deep damages and hydrodynamic features after higher number of accumulated shots. Irradiation with moderate energy density, accompanied with plasma appearance in front of the samples, is convenient for numerous potential applications, particularly surface elemental analysis such as laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. On the other h...and, lower densities are more suitable for Roman glass cleaning. Calculations of Roman glass surface temperature have shown that pulsed CO2 laser is favorable for surface cleaning and optimal fluence is similar to 2 J/cm(2). This was confirmed by additional experiments for fluences 1.5 and 3 J/cm(2). Morphological changes on the Roman glass surface induced by lasers were studied by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The composition of Roman glass was determined by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) method. Chemical analysis confirmed that the investigated glass dates from the Roman period. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords:Roman glass / Surface modification / Pulsed lasers / Morphological and chemical changes / Plasma
Source:Journal of Non-crystalline Solids, 2012, 358, 22, 3048-3056
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