Natural Radioactivity in Serbian Spa Waters
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The natural radioactivity of water is derived primarly from the radioactive rocks with which the water has been in contact. This study presents the natural radioactivity of mineral spa waters (total 29) collected from 4 different hydrological regions in Serbia (hydrogeological masiff, metamorphic area, karstic region and vulcanite massif) in the period 2007-2008. The measurements of gross alpha- and gross beta-activity are reported together with the activity concentration of the natural dissolved radionuclides K-40, Ra-226, Ra-228 and U-228. The maximum activity concentrations in the mineral waters were determined as LT 160, 530, 420, 1990 mBq/l for the natural radionuclides U-238, Ra-226, Ra-228 and K-40, respectively, and a maximum of 470 mBq/l for gross alpha- and 2037 mBq/l for gross beta-activity. The results indicate that large number of Spas has radium levels in mineral water that are moderately low and they are used for the treatment. Additionally, the radiological impact to hu...man exposure is investigated by estimating the effective annual dose of mineral water used for drinking cure.