Surface of Zn-Mn-O and its role in room temperature ferromagnetism: An XPS analysis
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The existence of ferromagnetism in Zn-Mn-O semiconductor samples and dependence on the preparation condition were investigated. We systematically examined the samples with manganese concentration ranging from 0 to 10 at.%, prepared by a solid state reaction route using (ZnC(2)O(4)center dot 2H(2)O)(1-x) and (MnC(2)O(4)center dot 2H(2)O)(x) as precursors. Thermal treatment was carried out in air at temperatures ranging from 400 to 900 degrees C. The samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, magnetization measurements and XPS spectroscopy. XPS surface composition, chemical analysis and depth profiling were successfully employed on powder revealing the chemical composition at the surface of the grains and underneath. The present investigation suggests that physical properties and observed room temperature ferromagnetism might be due to grain surface effects. It seems that the ferromagnetic phase is correlated with oxygen build up at the surface. (C)... 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords:ZnO / Magnetic semiconductors / Room temperature ferromagnetism / XPS
Source:Applied Surface Science, 2010, 257, 3, 937-943
- Ministry of Science of the Republic of Serbia , Slovenian Research Agency [P2-0082]