Composition of the sputter deposited W-Ti thin films
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Tungsten-titanium (W-Ti) thin film was deposited by dc Ar(+) sputtering of W(70 at.%)-Ti(30 at.%) target. The thin film composition, determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth pro. ling, is W((0.77 +/- 0.07)) Ti((0.08 +/- 0.03))O((0.15 +/- 0.03)). The presence of oxygen in the deposit is due to the rather poor vacuum conditions during the deposition, while significant deficiency of Ti, as compared to the sputtering target composition cannot be explained straightforwardly. Monte Carlo simulations of both, transport of sputtered particles from target to the substrate through the background gas (SRIM 2003 program) and thin film sputtering during the XPS depth pro. ling ( program TRIDYN_FZR) are presented. The simulations show that the particle transport through the background gas is mainly responsible for the Ti depletion: the estimated composition of the thin film is W(0.61)Ti(0.16)O(0.23). Additional apparent Ti depletion occurs due to the preferential sputtering during ...the thin film composition analysis. The simulation of the sputtering process show that the surface concentration measured by XPS should be about W(0.74)Ti(0.11)O(0.15). The discrepancy between the estimated surface composition and the actual experimental result is in the range of the experimental error. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.