Radioprotective effects of Gentianella austriaca fractions and polyphenolic constituents in human lymphocytes
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The aim of this study was to identify active principles of Gentianella austriaca responsible for the reduction of the incidence of micronuclei in irradiated lymphocytes in vitro. The radioprotective effects of ether (EF) and methanolic (MeF) fractions, water-soluble xanthones demethylbellidifolin (1), demethylbellidifolin 8-O-glucoside (2), bellidifolin 8-O-glucoside (3), and flavonoid swertisin (4) against chromosomal damage induced by gamma-rays were determined using the micronucleus test. EF and MeF showed better protection in treatment of human lymphocytes after gamma-irradiation than did isolated compounds. Among the isolated compounds, the effectivenessin reduction of the frequency of micronuclei followed the order 4 GT 3 GT 2 GT 1. The anti-lipoperoxidant activity was in the order 2 GT 4 GT 1, while 3 slightly increased the level of malondialdehyde. In addition, the effectiveness in induction of apoptosis followed the order, 3 GT 2 GT 4, while 1 had no proapoptotic effect. These... results suggest that the antioxidative properties of the polyphenols tested may contribute to the radioprotective effects of G. austriaca.