Hypothetical mechanism of sodium pump regulation by estradiol under primary hypertension
Isenović, Esma R.
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Causal relationship between sodium and hypertension has been proposed and various changes in Na+, K+-ATPase (sodium pump) activity have been described in established primary hypertension. A number of direct vascular effects of estradiol have been reported, including its impact on the regulation of sodium pump activity and vasomotor tone. The effects of estradiol involve the activation of multiple signaling cascades, including phosphatydil inositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p42/44 MAPK). In addition, some of the effects of estradiol have been linked to activity of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)). One possible cardioprotective mechanism of estradiol involves of the interaction between estradiol and the rennin-angiotensin system (RAS). Elevated circulating and tissue levels of angiotensin II (Ang II) have been implicated in the development of hypertension and heart failure. The aim of our investigation was to elucidate the signaling mechanisms emp...loyed by estradiol and Ang II in mediating sodium pump, in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). The aim of our investigation was to elucidate the signaling mechanisms employed by estradiol and Ang II in mediating sodium pump activity/expression in VSMC, with particular emphasis on PI3K/cPLA(2)/p42/44(MAPK) signaling pathways. Our primary hypothesis is that estradiol stimulates sodium. pump activity/expression in VSMC via PI3K/cPLA(2)/p42/44(MAPK) dependent mechanism and, that impaired estradiol-stimulated sodium pump activity/expression in hypertensive rodent models (i.e. SHR), Ang II-mediated vascular impairment of estradiol is related to a decrease ability of estradiol to stimulate the PI3K/cPLA(2)/p42/44(MAPK) signaling pathways. An important corollary to this hypothesis is that in hypertensive state (i.e. SHR rats) the decreasing in ACE enzyme activity and/or AT1 receptor expression caused by administration of estradiol is accompanying with abrogated ability of Ang 11 to decrease IRS-1/PI3K association, and consequent PI3K/cPLA(2)/p42/44(MAPK) activity and associated sodium pump activity/expression. A clear characterization of how Ang II attenuates estradiol signaling may lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanism(s) underlying pathophysiological conditions such as hypertension and to understanding how certain pathophysiological situations affect sodium pump activity/expression in VSMC. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.