Inhibition of AChE by single and simultaneous exposure to malathion and its degradation products
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In vitro inhibition of bovine erythrocytes acetylcholinesterase (AchE) by separate and simultaneous exposure to organophosphorous insecticide malathion and the transformation products, which are generally formed during the storage or natural as well as photochemical degradation pathways of malathion, was investigated. The increasing concentration of malathion, its oxidation product - malaoxon and isomerisation product - isomalathion inhibited AChE activity in a concentration-dependent manner. The half-maximum inhibitory concentrations (IC50 values): (3.2 +/- 0.1) x 10(-5) mol/l, (4.7 +/- 0.8) x 10(-7) mol/l and (6.0 +/- 0.5) x 10(-7) mol/l were obtained from the inhibition curves induced by malathion, malaoxon and isomalathion, respectively. However, the products formed due to photoinduced degradation, phosphorodithioic O,O,S-trimethyl phosphorodithioic ester (OOS(S)) and O,O-dimethyl thiophosphate did not noticeably affect the enzyme activity at all investigated concentrations, while ...diethyl maleate inhibited the AChE activity at concentrations GT 10 mmol/l. By simultaneous exposure of the enzyme to malaoxon and isomalathion in various concentration combinations the additive effect was achieved by low concentration of inhibitors, while the antagonistic effect was obtained at high concentration ( GT = 3 x 10-7 mol/l) of inhibitors. Inhibitory power of irradiated samples of 1 x 10(-5) mol/l malathion can be attributed to the formation of malaoxon and isomalathion, organophosphates about 100 times more toxic than their parent compound, while the presence of non-inhibiting degradation product OOS(S) did not affect the inhibitor efficiency of inhibiting malathion by-products, malaoxon and isomalathion.