Surface modifications of crystalline silicon created by high intensity 1064 nm picosecond Nd : YAG laser pulses
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A study of silicon modification induced by a high intensity picosecond Nd:YAG laser, emitting at 1064 nm, is presented. It is shown that laser intensities in the range of 5 x 10(10)-0.7 x 10(12) W cm(-2) drastically modified the silicon surface. The main modifications and effects can be considered as the appearance of a crater, hydrodynamic/deposition features, plasma, etc. The highest intensity of similar to 0.7 x 10(12) W cm(-2) leads to the burning through a 500 mu m thick sample. At these intensities, the surface morphology exhibits the transpiring of the explosive boiling/phase explosion (EB) in the interaction area. The picosecond Nd:YAG laser-silicon interaction was typically accompanied by massive ejection of target material in the surrounding environment. The threshold for the explosive boiling/phase explosion (TEB) was estimated to be in the interval 1.0 x 10(10) W cm(-2) LT TEB LT = 3.8 x 10(10) W cm(-2). (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.