Determination of drug-protein binding using supported liquid membrane extraction under equilibrium conditions
A technique for determination of drug-protein binding based on a membrane extraction technique termed equilibrium sampling through membrane (ESTM) is presented. It involves the establishment of an equilibrium between an aqueous buffer and either a blood plasma sample or a matched buffer, both containing the drug. Analysis of the aqueous buffer in the two cases gives the drug-protein binding. The principle bypasses some sources of systematic error found with common techniques for this measurement based on e.g. ultrafiltration, as it senses the equilibrium conditions without disturbing the sample. The technique is applied to some local anesthetic drugs as model substances and two alternative ways for the evaluation are presented. Results with these evaluation methods are compared with literature values for the drug-protein binding of these compounds. It is found that the drug-protein binding values obtained are lower than literature values, which is attributed to reduced systematic error.... (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.