Fluoxetine reverses behavior changes in socially isolated rats: role of the hippocampal GSH-dependent defense system and proinflammatory cytokines
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Exposure of an organism to chronic social isolation (CSIS) has been shown to have an important role in depression. Fluoxetine (Flx) is a first-line treatment for depression; however, its downstream mechanisms of action beyond serotonergic signaling remain ill-defined. We investigated the effect of 3 weeks of Flx (15 mg/kg/day) treatment on behavioral changes and protein expression/activity of the GSH-dependent defense system, including reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GLR), and glutathione S-transferase (GST), as well as catalase (CAT), in the hippocampus of rats exposed to 6 weeks of CSIS. The subcellular distributions of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B), as well as, cytosolic IL-1 beta and IL-6 protein expression, were also determined. CSIS induced depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, evidenced by a decrease in sucrose preference and an increase in the number of buried marbles. Moreover, CSIS compromised redox homeostasis, targetin...g enzymes such as GPx, CAT, GST, and caused NF-kappa B nuclear translocation with a concomitant increase in IL-6 protein expression, without an effect on IL-1 beta. Flx treatment reversed CSIS-induced depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, modulated GSH-dependent defense by increasing GLR and GST activity, and suppressed NF-kappa B activation and cytosolic IL-6 protein expression in socially isolated rats. The present study suggests that changes in the GSH-dependent defense system, NF-kappa B activation and increased IL-6 protein expression may have a role in social isolation-induced changes in a rat model of depression and anxiety, and contributes to our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the antidepressant and anti-inflammatory activity of Flx in socially isolated rats.
Keywords:Social isolation / Fluoxetine / Behavioral changes / GSH-dependent defense system / Proinflammatory cytokines / Rat hippocampus
Source:European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 2017, 267, 8, 737-749
- Molecular mechanisms of cellular responses on pathological changes in central neuronal system and peripheral organs of mammals (RS-173044)
- Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft [SFB636-TP3]