Extraordinary biological properties of a new calcium hydroxyapatite/poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-based scaffold confirmed by in vivo investigation
AuthorsJokanović, Vukoman R.
Čolović, Božana M.
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This study examined the potential of a new porous calcium hydroxyapatite scaffold covered with poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) as a bone substitute, identifying its advantages over Geistlich Bio-Oss (R), considered the gold standard, in in vivo biofunctionality investigations. Structural and morphological properties of the new scaffold were analyzed by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. The biofunctionality assays were performed on New Zealand white rabbits using new scaffold for filling full-thickness defects of critical size. The evaluated parameters were: the presence of macrophages, giant cells, monoocytes, plasma cells, granulocytes, neo-angiogenesis, fibroplasia, and the percentage of mineralization. Parallel biofunctionality assays were performed using Geistlich Bio-Oss (R). The appearance of bone defects 12 weeks after the new scaffold implantation showed the presence of a small number of typical immune response cells. Furthermore, significantly reduced number of... capillary buds, low intensity of fibroplasia and high degree of mineralization in a lamellar pattern indicated that the inflammation process has been almost completely overcome and that the new bone formed was in the final phase of remodeling. All biofunctionality assays proved the new scaffolds suitability as a bone substitute for applications in maxillofacial surgery. It showed numerous biological advantages over Geistlich Bio-Oss (R) which was reflected mainly as a lower number of giant cells surrounding implanted material and higher degree of mineralization in new formed bone.