Developing technological processes for nonstandard copper concentrates processing with the aim to decrease pollutants emission

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Developing technological processes for nonstandard copper concentrates processing with the aim to decrease pollutants emission (en)
Развој технолошких процеса прераде нестандардних концентрата бакра у циљу оптимизације емисије загађујућих материја (sr)
Razvoj tehnoloških procesa prerade nestandardnih koncentrata bakra u cilju optimizacije emisije zagađujućih materija (sr_RS)
Authors

Publications

Comparison of air pollution in the working environment during in site treatment of infectious medical waste by convertor and autoclave sterilization

Martinović, Biljana; Jelić, Ivana V.; Rikalović, Milena G.; Šljivić-Ivanović, Marija Z.; Radosavljević, Jelena; Kostić, Aleksandar Ž.; Adžemović, Mesud

(2020)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Martinović, Biljana
AU  - Jelić, Ivana V.
AU  - Rikalović, Milena G.
AU  - Šljivić-Ivanović, Marija Z.
AU  - Radosavljević, Jelena
AU  - Kostić, Aleksandar Ž.
AU  - Adžemović, Mesud
PY  - 2020
UR  - https://vinar.vin.bg.ac.rs/handle/123456789/9640
AB  - The aim of the present study is the comparison of ambient pollution in working environment during infectious medical waste treatment in two relevant health care institutions in the Republic of Serbia - The Blood Transfusion Institute of Serbia and The Clinical Centre of Serbia by different sterilization methods (sterilizer-convertor and autoclave, respectively). Monitoring and analysis of the following chemical compounds were performed in both institutions: water vapor, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrochloric acid, methane, ethane, propane, hexane, formaldehyde, benzene, toluene, m-xylene, phenol, acrolein, ethanol, ethyl acetate, ethylamine, ethylene oxide, methanol, dimethyl disulphide, dimethyl sulphide, ethyl mercaptan, methyl mercaptan, freon 11 (trichlorofluoromethane), carbonyl sulphide and hydrogen chloride. The determination of vapor-phase concentrations was done by extractive Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Monitoring of ambient pollution during infectious medical waste sterilization has shown that mercaptans, acrolein, formaldehyde, dimethyl sulphide, and ethylene oxide are emitted in both health institutions, in concentrations which are not permitted by regulations, while increased concentrations of hydrogen chloride and phenol were found in the Clinical Centre of Serbia. A comparison of ambient pollution with two different sterilization methods has shown that higher concentrations of pollutants are emitted at higher temperatures. Considering the fact that mentioned compounds exhibit high toxicity, hence represent the risk to air quality in working and living environment, i.e. represents a risk to human health it is necessary to revise and improve the existing treatment methods. © 2020 Parlar Scientific Publications. All rights reserved.
T2  - Fresenius Environmental Bulletin
T1  - Comparison of air pollution in the working environment during in site treatment of infectious medical waste by convertor and autoclave sterilization
VL  - 29
IS  - 4
SP  - 2160
EP  - 2165
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Martinović, Biljana and Jelić, Ivana V. and Rikalović, Milena G. and Šljivić-Ivanović, Marija Z. and Radosavljević, Jelena and Kostić, Aleksandar Ž. and Adžemović, Mesud",
year = "2020",
abstract = "The aim of the present study is the comparison of ambient pollution in working environment during infectious medical waste treatment in two relevant health care institutions in the Republic of Serbia - The Blood Transfusion Institute of Serbia and The Clinical Centre of Serbia by different sterilization methods (sterilizer-convertor and autoclave, respectively). Monitoring and analysis of the following chemical compounds were performed in both institutions: water vapor, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrochloric acid, methane, ethane, propane, hexane, formaldehyde, benzene, toluene, m-xylene, phenol, acrolein, ethanol, ethyl acetate, ethylamine, ethylene oxide, methanol, dimethyl disulphide, dimethyl sulphide, ethyl mercaptan, methyl mercaptan, freon 11 (trichlorofluoromethane), carbonyl sulphide and hydrogen chloride. The determination of vapor-phase concentrations was done by extractive Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Monitoring of ambient pollution during infectious medical waste sterilization has shown that mercaptans, acrolein, formaldehyde, dimethyl sulphide, and ethylene oxide are emitted in both health institutions, in concentrations which are not permitted by regulations, while increased concentrations of hydrogen chloride and phenol were found in the Clinical Centre of Serbia. A comparison of ambient pollution with two different sterilization methods has shown that higher concentrations of pollutants are emitted at higher temperatures. Considering the fact that mentioned compounds exhibit high toxicity, hence represent the risk to air quality in working and living environment, i.e. represents a risk to human health it is necessary to revise and improve the existing treatment methods. © 2020 Parlar Scientific Publications. All rights reserved.",
journal = "Fresenius Environmental Bulletin",
title = "Comparison of air pollution in the working environment during in site treatment of infectious medical waste by convertor and autoclave sterilization",
volume = "29",
number = "4",
pages = "2160-2165"
}
Martinović, B., Jelić, I. V., Rikalović, M. G., Šljivić-Ivanović, M. Z., Radosavljević, J., Kostić, A. Ž.,& Adžemović, M.. (2020). Comparison of air pollution in the working environment during in site treatment of infectious medical waste by convertor and autoclave sterilization. in Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 29(4), 2160-2165.
Martinović B, Jelić IV, Rikalović MG, Šljivić-Ivanović MZ, Radosavljević J, Kostić AŽ, Adžemović M. Comparison of air pollution in the working environment during in site treatment of infectious medical waste by convertor and autoclave sterilization. in Fresenius Environmental Bulletin. 2020;29(4):2160-2165..
Martinović, Biljana, Jelić, Ivana V., Rikalović, Milena G., Šljivić-Ivanović, Marija Z., Radosavljević, Jelena, Kostić, Aleksandar Ž., Adžemović, Mesud, "Comparison of air pollution in the working environment during in site treatment of infectious medical waste by convertor and autoclave sterilization" in Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 29, no. 4 (2020):2160-2165.
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Radionuclide Immobilization by Sorption onto Waste Concrete and Bricks—Experimental Design Methodology

Jelić, Ivana V.; Šljivić-Ivanović, Marija Z.; Dimović, Slavko; Antonijević, Dragi Lj.; Jović, Mihajlo D.; Vujović, Zoran; Smičiklas, Ivana D.

(2019)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Jelić, Ivana V.
AU  - Šljivić-Ivanović, Marija Z.
AU  - Dimović, Slavko
AU  - Antonijević, Dragi Lj.
AU  - Jović, Mihajlo D.
AU  - Vujović, Zoran
AU  - Smičiklas, Ivana D.
PY  - 2019
UR  - https://vinar.vin.bg.ac.rs/handle/123456789/8611
AB  - The utilization of construction and demolition waste materials for the radionuclide immobilization by sorption processes was investigated. Given that the liquid radioactive waste usually has a complex composition and that effects of competition may significantly influence the efficiency of the treatment, the Simplex Centroid experimental design was used to explore ions sorption from multi-component solutions. For the purpose of this study, the common components of construction and demolition waste, such as pathway concrete and different bricks samples, were used along with the multi-component Sr2+, Co2+, and Ni2+ ions solutions. The equations for the prediction of metal ions sorption capacities were derived. The coefficients that correspond to the linear and interaction terms were obtained using a special cubic model. Likewise, by analysis of variance, statistically significant terms of the obtained polynomial were defined. The investigation has shown that the most effective sorption was onto the pathway concrete for all three cations, while the highest sorption capacity was found for Co2+ ions. Also, it has been determined that concerning Sr2+ ion removal there was a competition with coexisting Co2+ and Ni2+ ions, reducing its sorption capacity, while sorption of Co2+ and Ni2+ occurred more independently on other cations in multi-component solutions. Based on the obtained results, the applied experimental design can be efficiently used for the description of competitive sorption process and could be a powerful tool for the prediction of cation immobilization in liquid radioactive waste treatment.
T2  - Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
T1  - Radionuclide Immobilization by Sorption onto Waste Concrete and Bricks—Experimental Design Methodology
VL  - 230
IS  - 10
SP  - 242
DO  - 10.1007/s11270-019-4298-3
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Jelić, Ivana V. and Šljivić-Ivanović, Marija Z. and Dimović, Slavko and Antonijević, Dragi Lj. and Jović, Mihajlo D. and Vujović, Zoran and Smičiklas, Ivana D.",
year = "2019",
abstract = "The utilization of construction and demolition waste materials for the radionuclide immobilization by sorption processes was investigated. Given that the liquid radioactive waste usually has a complex composition and that effects of competition may significantly influence the efficiency of the treatment, the Simplex Centroid experimental design was used to explore ions sorption from multi-component solutions. For the purpose of this study, the common components of construction and demolition waste, such as pathway concrete and different bricks samples, were used along with the multi-component Sr2+, Co2+, and Ni2+ ions solutions. The equations for the prediction of metal ions sorption capacities were derived. The coefficients that correspond to the linear and interaction terms were obtained using a special cubic model. Likewise, by analysis of variance, statistically significant terms of the obtained polynomial were defined. The investigation has shown that the most effective sorption was onto the pathway concrete for all three cations, while the highest sorption capacity was found for Co2+ ions. Also, it has been determined that concerning Sr2+ ion removal there was a competition with coexisting Co2+ and Ni2+ ions, reducing its sorption capacity, while sorption of Co2+ and Ni2+ occurred more independently on other cations in multi-component solutions. Based on the obtained results, the applied experimental design can be efficiently used for the description of competitive sorption process and could be a powerful tool for the prediction of cation immobilization in liquid radioactive waste treatment.",
journal = "Water, Air, & Soil Pollution",
title = "Radionuclide Immobilization by Sorption onto Waste Concrete and Bricks—Experimental Design Methodology",
volume = "230",
number = "10",
pages = "242",
doi = "10.1007/s11270-019-4298-3"
}
Jelić, I. V., Šljivić-Ivanović, M. Z., Dimović, S., Antonijević, D. Lj., Jović, M. D., Vujović, Z.,& Smičiklas, I. D.. (2019). Radionuclide Immobilization by Sorption onto Waste Concrete and Bricks—Experimental Design Methodology. in Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 230(10), 242.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-019-4298-3
Jelić IV, Šljivić-Ivanović MZ, Dimović S, Antonijević DL, Jović MD, Vujović Z, Smičiklas ID. Radionuclide Immobilization by Sorption onto Waste Concrete and Bricks—Experimental Design Methodology. in Water, Air, & Soil Pollution. 2019;230(10):242.
doi:10.1007/s11270-019-4298-3 .
Jelić, Ivana V., Šljivić-Ivanović, Marija Z., Dimović, Slavko, Antonijević, Dragi Lj., Jović, Mihajlo D., Vujović, Zoran, Smičiklas, Ivana D., "Radionuclide Immobilization by Sorption onto Waste Concrete and Bricks—Experimental Design Methodology" in Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 230, no. 10 (2019):242,
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-019-4298-3 . .
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Modelovanje sorpcionih izotermi jona Ni(II) na otpadnim cementnim materijalima

Šljivić-Ivanović, Marija Z.; Jelić, Ivana V.; Dimović, Slavko; Jović, Mihajlo D.; Stanić, Vojislav; Smičiklas, Ivana D.

(Београд : Институт за нуклеарне науке "Винча" : Друштво за заштиту од зрачења Србије и Црне Горе, 2019)

TY  - CONF
AU  - Šljivić-Ivanović, Marija Z.
AU  - Jelić, Ivana V.
AU  - Dimović, Slavko
AU  - Jović, Mihajlo D.
AU  - Stanić, Vojislav
AU  - Smičiklas, Ivana D.
PY  - 2019
UR  - https://plus.sr.cobiss.net/opac7/bib/279687436
UR  - https://vinar.vin.bg.ac.rs/handle/123456789/8723
AB  - Otpadni cementni materijali (beton i fasada) su bazirani na kvarcu i kalcitu. Prvenstveno zahvaljujući kalcitu i baznom karakteru, ove matrice su pokazale visok afinitet prema jonima nikla. Ispitivanje uticaja početne koncentracije jona Ni u rastvoru na sorbovanu količinu omogućava definisanje sorpcionih izotermi. U ovom radu su prikazani rezultati matematičkog modelovanja izotermi Langmuir-ovim i Freundlich-ovim modelom. Langmuir-ov model znatno bolje opisuje eksperimentalne podatke dobijene za sorpciju na betonu, dok je sorpcija otpadnom fasadom bolje opisana Freundlich-ovom izotermom.
AB  - Waste cementous materials like concrete and facade are primary consisted of quartz and calcite minerals. As a consequence of calcite content as well as strong alkalinity, these matrices showed high sorption potential toward nickel ions. The investigation of initial Ni concentration effect onto sorbed amounts, enabled the sorption isotherm curves determination. In this paper are given results of mathematical modelling using Langmuir and Freundlich model. The better sorption data description was obtained using Langmuir model in the case of concrete sample, while, Freundlich model was more suitable for description of sorption onto facade.
PB  - Београд : Институт за нуклеарне науке "Винча" : Друштво за заштиту од зрачења Србије и Црне Горе
C3  - 30. симпозијум ДЗЗСЦГ : зборник радова
T1  - Modelovanje sorpcionih izotermi jona Ni(II) na otpadnim cementnim materijalima
T1  - Sorption isotherm modeling for Ni(II) sorption onto waste cementous materials
SP  - 567
EP  - 571
ER  - 
@conference{
author = "Šljivić-Ivanović, Marija Z. and Jelić, Ivana V. and Dimović, Slavko and Jović, Mihajlo D. and Stanić, Vojislav and Smičiklas, Ivana D.",
year = "2019",
abstract = "Otpadni cementni materijali (beton i fasada) su bazirani na kvarcu i kalcitu. Prvenstveno zahvaljujući kalcitu i baznom karakteru, ove matrice su pokazale visok afinitet prema jonima nikla. Ispitivanje uticaja početne koncentracije jona Ni u rastvoru na sorbovanu količinu omogućava definisanje sorpcionih izotermi. U ovom radu su prikazani rezultati matematičkog modelovanja izotermi Langmuir-ovim i Freundlich-ovim modelom. Langmuir-ov model znatno bolje opisuje eksperimentalne podatke dobijene za sorpciju na betonu, dok je sorpcija otpadnom fasadom bolje opisana Freundlich-ovom izotermom., Waste cementous materials like concrete and facade are primary consisted of quartz and calcite minerals. As a consequence of calcite content as well as strong alkalinity, these matrices showed high sorption potential toward nickel ions. The investigation of initial Ni concentration effect onto sorbed amounts, enabled the sorption isotherm curves determination. In this paper are given results of mathematical modelling using Langmuir and Freundlich model. The better sorption data description was obtained using Langmuir model in the case of concrete sample, while, Freundlich model was more suitable for description of sorption onto facade.",
publisher = "Београд : Институт за нуклеарне науке "Винча" : Друштво за заштиту од зрачења Србије и Црне Горе",
journal = "30. симпозијум ДЗЗСЦГ : зборник радова",
title = "Modelovanje sorpcionih izotermi jona Ni(II) na otpadnim cementnim materijalima, Sorption isotherm modeling for Ni(II) sorption onto waste cementous materials",
pages = "567-571"
}
Šljivić-Ivanović, M. Z., Jelić, I. V., Dimović, S., Jović, M. D., Stanić, V.,& Smičiklas, I. D.. (2019). Modelovanje sorpcionih izotermi jona Ni(II) na otpadnim cementnim materijalima. in 30. симпозијум ДЗЗСЦГ : зборник радова
Београд : Институт за нуклеарне науке "Винча" : Друштво за заштиту од зрачења Србије и Црне Горе., 567-571.
Šljivić-Ivanović MZ, Jelić IV, Dimović S, Jović MD, Stanić V, Smičiklas ID. Modelovanje sorpcionih izotermi jona Ni(II) na otpadnim cementnim materijalima. in 30. симпозијум ДЗЗСЦГ : зборник радова. 2019;:567-571..
Šljivić-Ivanović, Marija Z., Jelić, Ivana V., Dimović, Slavko, Jović, Mihajlo D., Stanić, Vojislav, Smičiklas, Ivana D., "Modelovanje sorpcionih izotermi jona Ni(II) na otpadnim cementnim materijalima" in 30. симпозијум ДЗЗСЦГ : зборник радова (2019):567-571.

Physicochemical investigation of some archaeometallurgical findings from locality Kmpije (Bor, Serbia)

Zivkovic, D.; Strbac, N.; Sokic, M.; Andrić, Velibor; Jovanovic, I.; Jovicic, M.; Anđelić, B.; Radosavljevic, S.

(2014)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Zivkovic, D.
AU  - Strbac, N.
AU  - Sokic, M.
AU  - Andrić, Velibor
AU  - Jovanovic, I.
AU  - Jovicic, M.
AU  - Anđelić, B.
AU  - Radosavljevic, S.
PY  - 2014
UR  - https://vinar.vin.bg.ac.rs/handle/123456789/184
AB  - Preliminary results of physicochemical investigation of some archaeometallurgical findings from Kmpije locality in vicinity of Bor (Serbia) are presented in this paper. Ancient samples of prehistoric origin were investigated using different instrumental analytic methods-chemical, differential thermal, X-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis. Obtained results indicate to the presence of ancient metallurgical activities, so locality Kmpije may be considered as an archaeometallurgical site, which should be investigated more in future for more precise details.
T2  - Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
T1  - Physicochemical investigation of some archaeometallurgical findings from locality Kmpije (Bor, Serbia)
VL  - 118
IS  - 2
SP  - 1369
EP  - 1373
DO  - 10.1007/s10973-014-4050-6
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Zivkovic, D. and Strbac, N. and Sokic, M. and Andrić, Velibor and Jovanovic, I. and Jovicic, M. and Anđelić, B. and Radosavljevic, S.",
year = "2014",
abstract = "Preliminary results of physicochemical investigation of some archaeometallurgical findings from Kmpije locality in vicinity of Bor (Serbia) are presented in this paper. Ancient samples of prehistoric origin were investigated using different instrumental analytic methods-chemical, differential thermal, X-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis. Obtained results indicate to the presence of ancient metallurgical activities, so locality Kmpije may be considered as an archaeometallurgical site, which should be investigated more in future for more precise details.",
journal = "Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry",
title = "Physicochemical investigation of some archaeometallurgical findings from locality Kmpije (Bor, Serbia)",
volume = "118",
number = "2",
pages = "1369-1373",
doi = "10.1007/s10973-014-4050-6"
}
Zivkovic, D., Strbac, N., Sokic, M., Andrić, V., Jovanovic, I., Jovicic, M., Anđelić, B.,& Radosavljevic, S.. (2014). Physicochemical investigation of some archaeometallurgical findings from locality Kmpije (Bor, Serbia). in Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 118(2), 1369-1373.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-014-4050-6
Zivkovic D, Strbac N, Sokic M, Andrić V, Jovanovic I, Jovicic M, Anđelić B, Radosavljevic S. Physicochemical investigation of some archaeometallurgical findings from locality Kmpije (Bor, Serbia). in Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry. 2014;118(2):1369-1373.
doi:10.1007/s10973-014-4050-6 .
Zivkovic, D., Strbac, N., Sokic, M., Andrić, Velibor, Jovanovic, I., Jovicic, M., Anđelić, B., Radosavljevic, S., "Physicochemical investigation of some archaeometallurgical findings from locality Kmpije (Bor, Serbia)" in Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 118, no. 2 (2014):1369-1373,
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-014-4050-6 . .
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Influences of synthesis methods and modifier addition on the properties of Ni-based catalysts supported on reticulated ceramic foams

Nikolić, Vesna; Kamberović, Željko; Andić, Zoran; Korać, Marija; Sokić, Miroslav; Maksimović, Vesna

(Springer Nature, 2014)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Nikolić, Vesna
AU  - Kamberović, Željko
AU  - Andić, Zoran
AU  - Korać, Marija
AU  - Sokić, Miroslav
AU  - Maksimović, Vesna
PY  - 2014
UR  - https://vinar.vin.bg.ac.rs/handle/123456789/62
AB  - A method of synthesizing Ni-based catalysts supported on alpha-Al2O3-based foams was developed. The foams were impregnated with aqueous solutions of metal chlorides under an air atmosphere using an aerosol route. Separate procedures involved calcination to form oxides and drying to obtain chlorides on the foam surface. The synthesized samples were subsequently reduced with hydrogen. With respect to the Ni/Al2O3 catalysts, the chloride reduction route enabled the formation of a Ni coating without agglomerates or cracks. Further research included catalyst modification by the addition of Pd, Cu, and Fe. The influences of the additives on the degree of reduction and on the low-temperature reduction effectiveness (533 and 633 K) were examined and compared for the catalysts obtained from oxides and chlorides. Greater degrees of reduction were achieved with chlorides, whereas Pd was the most effective modifier among those investigated. The reduction process was nearly complete at 533 K in the sample that contained 0.1wt% Pd. A lower reduction temperature was utilized, and the calcination step was avoided, which may enhance the economical and technological aspects of the developed catalyst production method.
PB  - Springer Nature
T2  - International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy and Materials
T1  - Influences of synthesis methods and modifier addition on the properties of Ni-based catalysts supported on reticulated ceramic foams
VL  - 21
IS  - 8
SP  - 806
EP  - 812
DO  - 10.1007/s12613-014-0974-x
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Nikolić, Vesna and Kamberović, Željko and Andić, Zoran and Korać, Marija and Sokić, Miroslav and Maksimović, Vesna",
year = "2014",
abstract = "A method of synthesizing Ni-based catalysts supported on alpha-Al2O3-based foams was developed. The foams were impregnated with aqueous solutions of metal chlorides under an air atmosphere using an aerosol route. Separate procedures involved calcination to form oxides and drying to obtain chlorides on the foam surface. The synthesized samples were subsequently reduced with hydrogen. With respect to the Ni/Al2O3 catalysts, the chloride reduction route enabled the formation of a Ni coating without agglomerates or cracks. Further research included catalyst modification by the addition of Pd, Cu, and Fe. The influences of the additives on the degree of reduction and on the low-temperature reduction effectiveness (533 and 633 K) were examined and compared for the catalysts obtained from oxides and chlorides. Greater degrees of reduction were achieved with chlorides, whereas Pd was the most effective modifier among those investigated. The reduction process was nearly complete at 533 K in the sample that contained 0.1wt% Pd. A lower reduction temperature was utilized, and the calcination step was avoided, which may enhance the economical and technological aspects of the developed catalyst production method.",
publisher = "Springer Nature",
journal = "International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy and Materials",
title = "Influences of synthesis methods and modifier addition on the properties of Ni-based catalysts supported on reticulated ceramic foams",
volume = "21",
number = "8",
pages = "806-812",
doi = "10.1007/s12613-014-0974-x"
}
Nikolić, V., Kamberović, Ž., Andić, Z., Korać, M., Sokić, M.,& Maksimović, V.. (2014). Influences of synthesis methods and modifier addition on the properties of Ni-based catalysts supported on reticulated ceramic foams. in International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy and Materials
Springer Nature., 21(8), 806-812.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12613-014-0974-x
Nikolić V, Kamberović Ž, Andić Z, Korać M, Sokić M, Maksimović V. Influences of synthesis methods and modifier addition on the properties of Ni-based catalysts supported on reticulated ceramic foams. in International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy and Materials. 2014;21(8):806-812.
doi:10.1007/s12613-014-0974-x .
Nikolić, Vesna, Kamberović, Željko, Andić, Zoran, Korać, Marija, Sokić, Miroslav, Maksimović, Vesna, "Influences of synthesis methods and modifier addition on the properties of Ni-based catalysts supported on reticulated ceramic foams" in International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy and Materials, 21, no. 8 (2014):806-812,
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12613-014-0974-x . .
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