Radiation dose determines the method for quantification of DNA double strand breaks
AutoriBulat, Tanja M.
Keta, Otilija D.
Petrović, Ivan M.
Todorović, Danijela V.
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Ionizing radiation induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) that trigger phosphorylation of the histone protein H2AX (gamma H2AX). Immunofluorescent staining visualizes formation of gamma H2AX foci, allowing their quantification. This method, as opposed to Western blot assay and Flow cytometry, provides more accurate analysis, by showing exact position and intensity of fluorescent signal in each single cell. In practice there are problems in quantification of gamma H2AX. This paper is based on two issues: the determination of which technique should be applied concerning the radiation dose, and how to analyze fluorescent microscopy images obtained by different microscopes. HTB140 melanoma cells were exposed to gamma-rays, in the dose range from 1 to 16 Gy. Radiation effects on the DNA level were analyzed at different time intervals after irradiation by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy. Immunochemically stained cells were visualized with two types of microscopes: Ax...ioVision (Zeiss, Germany) microscope, comprising an ApoTome software, and AxioImagerA1 microscope (Zeiss, Germany). Obtained results show that the level of gamma H2AX is time and dose dependent. Immunofluorescence microscopy provided better detection of DSBs for lower irradiation doses, while Western blot analysis was more reliable for higher irradiation doses. AxioVision microscope containing ApoTome software was more suitable for the detection of gamma H2AX foci.