Factors effecting the induction of rat forestomach hyperplasia induced by Swedish oral smokeless tobacco (snus)
Rutqvist, Lars Erik
Filipović Tričković, Jelena G.
Article (Published version)
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Long term exposure to oral smokeless tobacco may induce lesions in the oral cavity characterized by a hyperplastic epithelium. The possible role of nicotine and the physical properties of oral tobacco for developing these lesions, as well as of dysplasia and neoplasia is unclear. Low nitrosamine Swedish snus as well as non-genotoxic butylated hydroxyanisole induces increased cellular proliferation in the rat forestomach epithelia. Using this model, we report here on the effects of nicotine, pH, and particle size. Snus with different properties had no impact on oxidative stress as determined by 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine, or on interleukin IL-1b. Whereas BHA boosted IL-6, probably due to the presence of nicotine. there was no significant enhancement of cell divisions with increasing particle size, although in individual samples the variations in proliferation rates increased greatly with increasing particle size. Conforming to human experience, the enhanced cell proliferation c...aused by snus was found to be completely reversible. A cacao bean extract had a protective action similar to that previously found for blueberries. The main cause of the observed tobacco induced cell proliferation could be mechanical irritation, possibly in combination with nicotine, whereas within the studied range, pH did not affect the rate of cell division. © 2019