Graphene quantum dots inhibit T cell-mediated neuroinflammation in rats
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Isaković, Aleksandra J.
Kravić-Stevović, Tamara K.
Bumbaširević, Vladimir Ž.
Paunović, Verica G.
Jovanović, Svetlana P.
Marković, Zoran M.
Trajković, Vladimir S.
Article (Published version)
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd
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We investigated the therapeutic capacity of nano-sized graphene sheets, called graphene quantum dots (GQD), in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of immune-mediated central nervous system (CNS) damage. Intraperitoneally administered GQD (10 mg/kg/day) accumulated in the lymph node and CNS cells of Dark Agouti rats in which EAE was induced by immunization with spinal cord homogenate in complete Freund's adjuvant. GQD significantly reduced clinical signs of EAE when applied throughout the course of the disease (day 0–32), while the protection was less pronounced if the treatment was limited to the induction (day 0–7 post-immunization) or effector (from day 8 onwards) phase of the disease. GQD treatment diminished immune infiltration, demyelination, axonal damage, and apoptotic death in the CNS of EAE animals. GQD also reduced the numbers of interferon-γ-expressing T helper (Th)1 cells, as well as the expression of Th1 transcription factor T-bet and proinflam...matory cytokines tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the lymph nodes and CNS immune infitrates. The protective effect of GQD in EAE was associated with the activation of p38 and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and Akt in the lymph nodes and/or CNS. Finally, GQD protected oligodendrocytes and neurons from T cell-mediated damage in the in vitro conditions. Collectively, these data demonstrate the ability of GQD to gain access to both immune and CNS cells during neuroinflammation, and to alleviate immune-mediated CNS damage by modulating MAPK/Akt signaling and encephalitogenic Th1 immune response. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd
Keywords:Graphene quantum dots / Neuroinflammation / Demyelination / T cells / Interferon-γ
Source:Neuropharmacology, 2019, 146, 95-108
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ISSN: 0028-3908 (print)