Amendment Type and Dose Effects onto Coexisting Copper, Lead, and Nickel Ions Distribution in Soil
AuthorsŠljivić-Ivanović, Marija Z.
Smičiklas, Ivana D.
Jović, Mihajlo D.
Onjia, Antonije E.
Article (Published version)
© 2018, Springer Nature Switzerland AG
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The use of soil additives for toxic metals chemical stabilization aims to decrease in situ the pollutants’ mobility and availability. In this study, the effectiveness of rinsed red mud (RBRM) and annealed animal bones (B400) was compared in terms of Cu, Pb and Ni stabilization in two contaminated soils with contrasting properties Dystric Cambisol (CM dy) and Rendzic Leptosol (LP rz). The mobility of metals in unamended soil samples (control) and samples amended with 1% and 5% of selected additives were compared using sequential extraction protocol. The relative content of metals in readily and potentially available fractions was higher in CM dy (62% Pb, 13% Cu, and 31% Ni in exchangeable fraction) than in LP rz (< 5% of Pb, Cu, Ni in exchangeable fraction). In CM dy, both additives have caused a decrease in metal mobility with an increase of their doses. The effect of 5% sorbent addition was most pronounced related to Pb immobilization, provoking decrease of exchangeable Pb content to ...< 10%. Furthermore, B400 addition has redistributed investigated metals from the exchangeable to the residual phase more effectively than RBRM, and its effect on metal mobility decreased in the order Pb > Cu > Ni. Amending of LP rz soil had limited effects with no apparent decrease in exchangeable metal content. The effects of soil type variation, the type of additive and the additive dose onto metal mobility were compared according to ANOVA results. The content of readily and potentially available forms of metals was found to be (i) significantly correlated with all investigated variables for Pb, (ii) significantly correlated with soil type for Cu, and (iii) not in significant correlation with selected variables for Ni. Complex impacts of soil properties and treatment conditions on the mobility of co-contaminants emphasize the need for an individual approach to each case of contamination. © 2018, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.