Morphological and crystallographic characteristics of electrodeposited lead from a concentrated electrolyte
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Electrodeposition of lead from a concentrated nitrate solution was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the obtained powder particles. Single crystals of the (111) preferred orientation were formed at a low overpotential by ohmic controlled electrodeposition. Irregular crystals, needle-like and fern-like dendrites, predominantly of the (111) preferred orientation, were formed at high overpotentials (the diffusion control of the electrodeposition). The ratio of Pb crystallites oriented in the (200), (220), (311) and (331) planes increased with increasing electrodeposition overpotential. The correlation between the morphologies and crystallographic structures of the lead deposits was discussed by the consideration of general characteristics of growth layers in electrodeposition processes.