Speciation of Sr-90 and other metal cations in artificially contaminated soils: the influence of bone sorbent addition
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The influence of bone sorbent addition onto distribution of Sr-90 in artificially contaminated soil was preliminary studied to assess the possibility of biogenic apatite utilization for reduction of Sr-90 mobility and availability. Simultaneously, the disruption of soil micro- (Cd, Zn, Co, Cu, Cr, and Ni,) and macroelements (Al, Fe, Mn, K, Mg, and Ca) upon Sr contamination and sorbent addition was monitored. The model soil was contaminated by inactive Sr, in the form of Sr(NO3)(2) solution. As a soil additive, sorbent obtained by annealing bovine bones at 400 A degrees C (B400) was applied. Both the uncontaminated and Sr-contaminated soils were mixed with 1, 3, 5, and 10 % of sorbent, suspended in distilled water (initial pH 5; solid/solution ratio, 1:2), and equilibrated for 15 days on a rotary shaker. Solid residues were subjected to modified Tessier five-step sequential extraction analysis, and the amounts of chosen metals in each fraction were determined by inductively coupled plas...ma-optical emission spectroscopy. In the original soil, Sr was mainly found in exchangeable (61 %) and carbonate phase (16 %), whereas after contamination, the content of Sr in exchangeable phase raised to 94 %. With the addition of B400, the decrease in Sr amounts in exchangeable fraction was detected, whereas increase occurred mainly in operationally defined carbonate phase and in the residual. High level of Sr contamination caused the increase in Zn, Ni, Co, Cu, Cd, and Mn and decrease in Ca content in exchangeable phase. Sorbent addition resulted in a migration of these cations to less soluble fractions. This effect was observed even for major soil elements such as Fe, Al, and Mn, regardless of the excessive amounts of Sr in the soil. Mixing the soil with B400 resulted in reduced Sr mobility and bioavailability. B400 acted as a stabilizing agent for heavy metals, as well. Apatite distinguished selectivity towards heavy metals may interfere with the Sr immobilization and disrupt original cation distribution. Further studies should include more realistic (lower) Sr concentrations in the soil, different soil types, pH, and longer incubation times.