Evaluation of factors influencing Co2+ removal by calcinated bone sorbent using experimental design methodology
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Experimental design methodology was applied for evaluation of factors influencing Co2+ sorption by thermally treated bovine bones. The major aim of this study was to determine factors which affect process the most, as well as their mutual interactions, in order to select conditions that provide maximum sorbent loading. Five process variables (sorbent mass, sorbate concentration, contact time, initial pH and agitation speed) were examined by full factorial design at two levels. The initial sorbate concentration and sorbent mass were found to be a principle factors influencing cation sorption. Furthermore, a considerable interaction effect between these two factors was detected. Optimal conditions for the maximum sorbent loading include the use of small sorbent doses and concentrated Co2+ solution, without any previous pH adjustment, at least if the pH of actual waste water is within tested range (3 LT pH LT 6). The contact time and agitation speed, which within investigated ranges had n...o significant effect on sorption, may be set at their minimum levels (1 h; 10 rpm) to shorten the reaction time and reduce energy consumption. The influence of process factors on other system responses (amounts of Ca2+ released from apatite phase of bones, and final pH values) were also determined and analyzed. Empirical mathematical models illustrated the dependences of responses on the process variables, whereas residual and statistical analysis confirmed model adequacy.