Characteristics of indoor temperatures over winter for Belgrade urban dwellings: Indications of thermal comfort and space heating energy demand
Stevanović, Žarko M.
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A lack of empirical data for residential indoor temperature has important implications for policy-makers in terms of energy performance objectives and the use of energy demand models for the building stock. This study investigates winter indoor temperatures, relative humidity and vapour pressure excess in 2009-2010 across various types and ages of buildings using half-hourly monitoring of 96 dwellings representative of residential buildings in Belgrade, including those with district heating (DH) with no direct occupant control in which heating is charged on a floor area basis. The average daily living room temperature of 22.8 degrees C (95%CI: 21.9-22.7) in DH dwellings was 2.3 degrees C higher than those with other heating types, including individual central heating (ICH) and non-central heating (non-CH), daily bedroom temperature of 22.3 degrees C (95%CI: 21.9-22.7) was 3.0 degrees C higher. Evening living room and night bedroom temperatures in ICH dwellings were 22% and 37% of the t...ime respectively below 18 degrees C, and 10% and 27% of the time respectively in non-CH dwellings. The high degree of overheating in DH dwellings indicates the considerable potential to reduce energy consumption, if user controls and heating bills reflected household consumption were introduced. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.