The association of ACE I/D gene polymorphism with severe carotid atherosclerosis in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy
Radak, Đorđe J.
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Introduction: The ACE I/D polymorphism was mostly investigated in association with intima-media thickness, rarely with severe atherosclerotic phenotype. Materials and methods: We investigated the association of I/D polymorphism with severe carotid atherosclerosis (CA) (stenosis GT 70%) in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. The 504 patients subjected to endarterectomy and 492 healthy controls from a population in Serbia were investigated as a case-control study. Results: The univariate logistic regression analysis revealed ACE DD as a significant risk factor for severe CA (odds ratio [OR] = 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-1.7, p = 0.04). After adjustment for the common risk factors (age, hypertension, smoking, and HDL) ACE was no longer significant. However, we found a significant independent influence of DD genotype on plaque presence in a normotensive subgroup of patients (OR 1.8, CI 1.2-3.0, p = 0.01, corrected for multiple testing). In sym...ptomatic patients D allele carriers were significantly more frequent compared with asymptomatic patients (OR 1.6 CI 1.0-2.6, p = 0.05). Conclusions: Our data suggests that ACE I/D is not an independent risk factor for severe CA. On the other hand, a significant independent genetic influence of ACE I/D appeared in normotensive and symptomatic patients with severe CA. This should be considered in further research toward resolving the complex genetic background of severe CA phenotype.