Surface modification of the titanium implant using TEA CO2 laser pulses in controllable gas atmospheres - Comparative study
Stašić, Jelena M.
Gaković, Biljana M.
Milovanović, Dubravka S.
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Interaction of a TEA CO2 laser, operating at 10.6 mu m wavelength and pulse duration of 100 ns (FWHM), with a titanium implant in various gas atmospheres was studied. The Ti implant surface modification was typically studied at the moderate laser beam energy density/fluence of 28 J/cm(2) in the surrounding of air, N-2, O-2 or He. The energy absorbed from the TEA CO2 laser beam is partially converted to thermal energy, which generates a series of effects, such as melting, vaporization of the molten material, shock waves, etc. The following titanium implant surface changes and phenomena were observed, depending on the gas used: (i) creation of cone-like surface structures in the atmospheres of air, N-2 and O-2, and dominant micro-holes/pores in He ambient; (ii) hydrodynamic features, most prominent in air; (iii) formation of titanium nitride and titanium oxide layers, and (iv) occurrence of plasma in front of the implant. It can be concluded from this study that the reported laser fluenc...e and gas ambiences can effectively be applied for enhancing the titanium implant roughness and creation of titanium oxides and nitrides on the strictly localized surface area. The appearance of plasma in front of the implants indicates relatively high temperatures created above the surface. This offers a sterilizing effect, facilitating contaminant-free conditions. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.