Simple and cost-effective measures for the improvement of paper mill effluent treatment - A case study
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In this study, the performance and the efficiency of physico-chemical effluent treatment in a paper mill was investigated, with the aim of evaluating the treatment rationality and running stability. The effluent treatment plant (ETP) uses alum as a coagulant and polyacrylamide as a flocculant in multi-stage water purification. Inadequate efficiency and some operational problems were observed and their occurrences were investigated. Several simple measures inside the mill and some technical measures can prevent or postpone expensive end-of-pipe treatment investments, such as biological treatment. Chemically enhanced primary treatment under optimal operating conditions can be a stand-alone technique for achieving high quality effluent. Furthermore, reductions in wastewater generation in combination with fiber and filler recovery provide environmental benefits as well as significant economic savings in production. The advantages of the cleaner production approach in existing treatment uni...ts compared to expensive biological end-of-pipe technologies are obvious. This study demonstrated that the examined mill could easily and cost-effectively change its water system toward strict discharge limits by continuing to use the existing treatment units. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.