Dynamic polarization of graphene by moving external charges: Random phase approximation
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We evaluate the stopping and image forces on a charged particle moving parallel to a doped sheet of graphene by using the dielectric-response formalism for graphenes pi-electron bands in the random phase approximation (RPA). The forces are presented as functions of the particle speed and the particle distance for a broad range of charge-carrier densities in graphene. A detailed comparison with the results from a kinetic equation model reveal the importance of interband single-particle excitations in the RPA model for high particle speeds. We also consider the effects of a finite gap between graphene and a supporting substrate, as well as the effects of a finite damping rate that is included through the use of Mermins procedure. The damping rate is estimated from a tentative comparison of the Mermin loss function with a high-resolution reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy experiment. In the limit of low particle speeds, several analytical results are obtained for the friction co...efficient that show an intricate relationship between the charge-carrier density, the damping rate, and the particle distance, which may be relevant to surface processes and electrochemistry involving graphene.