Regulation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase and sodium pump in type 1 diabetes
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Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a hormone and growth factor closely related to insulin. The autocrine/paracrine actions of IGF-1 involve activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase sodium pump in cardiovascular tissues. Data from literature indicate that iNOS is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and that IGF- 1 -induced release of NO is both rapid and delayed. We hypothesize that impaired IGF-1 -induced sodium pump activity/ expression in rats with type 1 diabetes is related to activation of phosphatidytinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/cytosolic phospholipase 2 (cPLA(2))/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling, and that IGF-1 prevents acute and chronic dysfunction of iNOS and sodium pump activity in a chemically induced model of type 1 diabetes, the streptozotocin -treated rat heart (STZ). Understanding how iNOS and sodium pump activity are regulated by IGF-1 activation of the PI3K/cPLA(2)/Akt cascade should provide novel and fundamental know...ledge regarding the regulatory actions of IGF-1 in promoting vasodilation. Since insulin resistance is currently a major focus of research, the use of IGF-1 to improve insulin resistance and glucose metabolism has opened a new arena for treatment of comorbid conditions. Future investigations should now focus on mechanisms of action of IGF-1 and its clinical applicability. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.