Surface modifications of a titanium implant by a picosecond Nd : YAG laser operating at 1064 and 532 nm
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Interaction of an Nd:YAG laser, operating at 1064 or 532 nm wavelength and pulse duration of 40 ps, with titanium implant was studied. Surface damage thresholds were estimated to 0.9 and 0.6 J/cm(2) at wavelengths 1064 and 532 nm, respectively. The titanium implant surface modification was studied by the laser beam of energy density of 4.0 and 23.8 J/cm(2) (at 1064 nm) and 13.6 J/cm(2) (at 532 nm). The energy absorbed from the Nd:YAG laser beam is partially converted to thermal energy, which generates a series of effects, such as melting, vaporization of the molten material, shock waves, etc. The following titanium/implant surface morphological changes were observed: (i) both laser wavelengths cause damage of the titanium in the central zone of the irradiated area, (ii) appearance of a hydrodynamic feature in the form of resolidified droplets of the material in the surrounding outer zone with the 1064 nm laser wavelength and (iii) appearance of wave-like inicrostructures with the 532 n...m wavelength. Generally, both laser wavelengths and the corresponding laser energy densities can efficiently enhance the titanium/implant roughness. This implant roughness is expected to improve its bio-integration. The process of the laser interaction with titanium implant was accompanied by formation of plasma. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.