Effects of gamma-radiation on cell growth, cycle arrest, death, and superoxide dismutase expression by DU145 human prostate cancer cells
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Gamma-irradiation (gamma-IR) is extensively used in the treatment of hormone-resistant prostate carcinoma. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of Co-60 gamma-IR on the growth, cell cycle arrest and cell death of the human prostate cancer cell line DU 145. The viability of DU 145 cells was measured by the Trypan blue exclusion assay and the 3(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5,diphenyltetrazolium bromide test. Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation was used for the determination of cell proliferation. Cell cycle arrest and cell death were analyzed by flow cytometry. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), specifically CuZnSOD and MnSOD protein expression, after 10 Gy gamma-IR, was determined by Western immunoblotting analysis. gamma-IR treatment had a significant (P LT 0.001) antiproliferative and cytotoxic effect on DU 145 cells. Both effects were time and dose dependent. Also, the dose of gamma-IR which inhibited DNA synthesis and cell proliferation by 50% was 9.7 Gy. Furthermor...e, gamma-IR induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and the percentage of cells in the G2/M phase was increased from 15% (control) to 49% (IR cells), with a nonsignificant induction of apoptosis. Treatment with 10 Gy gamma-IR for 24, 48, and 72 h stimulated CuZnSOD and MnSOD protein expression in a time-dependent manner, approximately by 3- to 3.5-fold. These data suggest that CuZnSOD and MnSOD enzymes may play an important role in the gamma-IR-induced changes in DU 145 cell growth, cell cycle arrest and cell death.