First results on patient dose measurements from conventional diagnostic radiology procedures in Serbia and Montenegro
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The objective of this work is to assess patient doses for the most frequent X-ray examinations for the first time in Serbia and Montenegro. A total of 510 procedures for 11 different examination categories in 3 general hospitals were analysed. Mean and median entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) and kerma area product (KAP) values followed by mean effective doses were reported. Using X-ray tube output data, ESAK for each radiographic examination was calculated, as well as the effective dose for each patient. Except for chest PA examination, all estimated doses are less than stated European and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reference levels for simple radiographic examinations. For complex examinations involving fluoroscopy and radiography total KAP was measured and contributions from fluoroscopy and radiography were assessed. The study of KAP confirms that the dose level for complex fluoroscopy investigations is closely related to the technique and individual patient variation... in terms of fluoroscopy time and number of radiography exposures. The obtained values are comparable to those reported in the UK. Survey data are aimed aid development of a national quality control and radiation protection programme for medical exposures.