ACE and AT1 receptor gene polymorphisms and renal scarring in urinary bladder dysfunction
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The objective of this study was to investigate whether DNA polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) genes were associated with renal scar formation in pediatric patients with bladder dysfunction (BD). Although these children are born healthy, due to persistence of immature voiding habits and evolution of BD, some develop progressive renal damage. It has been suggested that the DD genotype of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene might be an adverse renal prognostic factor. The insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene and the A1166C polymorphism of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (ATR1) gene were identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification in 42 children with BD (aged 5-14 years) and 198 healthy adult controls. Twelve children had urgency syndrome and 30 had dysfunctional voiding. Renal scarring was found in 16 patients, while 26 patients had normal kidneys on dimercaptosuccinic acid scan. In children with renal lesions there was significant... over-representation of the DD genotype compared with either controls or patients without renal damage (P LT 0.05). On multivariate analysis, the DD genotype was the only factor that had a significant impact on renal scar formation, introducing a 2.51-fold risk (odds ratio 2.51, 95% confidence interval 1.04-6.04, P=0.04). The A1166C gene polymorphism was not significantly associated with the development of parenchymal damage in children with BD. Our findings introduce ACE I/D gene polymorphism as an independent risk factor for parenchymal destruction in pediatric patients with BD.