Dynamical symmetry breaking and the Nambu-Goldstone theorem in the Gaussian wave functional approximation
We analyze the group-theoretical ramifications of the Nambu-Goldstone (NG) theorem in the self-consistent relativistic variational Gaussian wave functional approximation to spinless field theories. In an illustrative example we show how the Nambu-Goldstone theorem would work in the O(N) symmetric phi(4) scalar field theory, if the residual symmetry of the vacuum were lesser than O(N-1), e.g., if the vacuum were O(N-2), or O(N-3),... symmetric. (This does not imply that any of the lesser vacua is actually the absolute energy minimum: stability analysis has not been done.) The requisite number of NG bosons would be (2N-3), or (3N-6),..., respectively, which may exceed N, the number of elementary fields in the Lagrangian. We show how the requisite new NG bosons would appear even in channels that do not carry the same quantum numbers as one of N elementary particles [scalar field quanta, or Castillejo-Dalitz-Dyson (CDD) poles] in the Lagrangian, i.e., in those flavor channels that have no ...CDD poles. The corresponding Nambu-Goldstone bosons are composites (bound states) of pairs of massive elementary (CDD) scalar fields excitations. As a nontrivial example of this method we apply it to the physically more interesting t Hooft sigma model (an extended N-f=2 bosonic linear sigma model with four scalar and four pseudoscalar fields), with spontaneously and explicitly broken chiral O(4)xO(2)similar or equal toSU(R)(2)xSU(L)(2)xU(A)(1) symmetry. (C) 2003 American Institute of Physics.