Effect of novel stressors on tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression in the adrenal medulla of repeatedly immobilized rats
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The activity of the sympathetic-adrenomedullary system in rats submitted to novel stressors after prior repeated or chronic stress exposure is poorly understood. The purpose of the present work was to investigate changes in adrenomedullary (AM) tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene expression after a single or long-term repeated exposure of rats to immobilization stress (IMMO; 42 times), as well as in repeatedly immobilized rats (41 times) exposed once to various novel heterotypic stressors. Cold exposure for 5 h, administration of insulin (INS, 5IU), or 2-deoxyglucose (2DG, 500 mg/kg) were used as novel stressors. A single exposure to cold, INS, or 2DG produced transient increases in TH mRNA levels in AM. Animals e: posed to repeated homotypic IMMO stress showed permanently increased TH mRNA levels, TH activity, and protein levels; however, an exposure of such animals to heterotypic novel stressors did not induce any further changes. Thus the observed differences in TH mRNA levels in the AM ...of control rats and long-term repeatedly IMMO rats suggest that an adaptation to this stressor is displayed by a permanently increased TH gene expression, TH activity, and protein level. The exposure of repeatedly IMMO rats to a single episode of novel stressor does not induce exaggerated responses in TH gene expression, as some other stressors do. The mechanism of this finding could involve a central regulation and/or adrenomedullary signaling pathway(s), leading to additional modifications or accumulation of transcription factors. The precise mechanism(s) of this phenomenon remains to be elucidated.
Keywords:tryrosine hydroxylase / gene expression / mRNA / novel stressors / immobilization
Source:Neurochemical Research, 2003, 28, 3-4, 625-630
- FIC NIH HHS [TW 00984]