Chromosome aberrations, micronuclei, and activity of superoxide dismutases in human lymphocytes after irradiation in vitro
Pajović, Snežana B.
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The goal of this study was to provide data on the dose-dependent production of dicentrics and micronuclei in human lymphocytes irradiated with 22.6 MeV protons and to estimate the possible contribution of intracellular superoxide dismutases (SOD) to the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of protons. For the dose-response study, heparinized whole blood of a healthy volunteer was irradiated with protons and Xrays employing radiation doses of 0.5-4 Gy. Three biological endpoints were analyzed: chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei, and specific activity of cytosolic (CuZnSOD) and mitochondrial (MnSOD) superoxide dismutases in harvested human blood cells. Dicentric dose-response curves fit a linear-quadratic form (alpha = 0.094 +/- 0.006, beta = 0.032 +/- 0.001) induced with X-rays and (alpha = 0.119 +/- 0.057, beta = 0.029 +/- 0.014) for 22.6 MeV protons. Protons were more effective than X-rays in producing exchanges, particularly at 0.5 and 1 Gy. In contrast to X-ray irradiated sampl...es where a significant increase in the specific activity of MnSOD was recorded (up to a radiation dose of 1 Gy), irradiation with protons markedly reduced its activity. As a consequence of the reduced activity of MnSOD, the chromosomal dose-response curve became quadratic. The RBE for dicentrics varies with dose (from 2.2 to 1.01) and reduced activity of MnSOD is an important contributor to the RBE of protons. SODs, particularly MnSOD, play an important role in defending DNA from reactive oxygen species. A reduced activity of SOD, particularly MnSOD, is an important contributor to the RBE of protons.