Tritium around the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences
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The spatial and temporal distributions of tritium in precipitation, river water, atmospheric water vapor, and air were observed in the Belgrade area over the period 1988-1997. Significantly higher tritium levels were measured in samples in the vicinity of the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences compared with off-site locations. Annual mean tritium concentrations in precipitation ranged from 2.2 to 35.4 Bq/1, decreasing with distance from the nuclear facilities. The annual mean release of tritium into the environment from heavy water reactor operations at the Vinca Institute based on precipitation measurements was estimated to be about 80 TBq. Data show a large variability of tritium concentration in the air, fluctuating in the ranges 0.27-60.8 Bq/m(3) air (16-2468 Bq/l-H2O) in atmospheric water vapor in which tritium occurs as HTO and 0.04-1.05 Bq/m(3) air hue to the tritium content in atmospheric hydrogen gas. Annual average concentrations observed for HTO and HT forms were 11.5-19.1 ...and 0.46-0.48 Bq/m(3) air respectively. The two data sets for HTO and HT are similar, suggesting a near steady state over the period of observation. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.