Evaluation of the effects of treatment factors on the properties of bio-apatite materials
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AuthorsŠljivić-Ivanović, Marija Z.
Smičiklas, Ivana D.
Dojčinović, Biljana P.
Babić, Biljana M.
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Animal bones have been studied as a resource of low-crystalline apatite for immobilization of toxic heavy metals. Chemical and thermal treatments can be applied for selective removal of bone organic constituents. In this study, the impact of different treatment factors was determined by experimental design methodology, and comparison of the estimated effects was performed in order to optimize the treatment conditions. Fractional factorial design with five variables at two levels was applied for factors screening. The type of chemical reagent (H2O2 or NaOH), its concentration (0.1 or 2 mol/L), reaction temperature (20 or 60 degrees C), contact time (1 or 3 h) and sample annealing (without or at 400 degrees C) were considered as process variables. Structural properties of bone sorbents, loss of ignition, point of zero charge, surface functional groups, specific surface area, chemical composition, and Cd2+ sorption efficiency, were selected as system responses. Samples significantly diffe...red in respect to the organic phase content and composition, thus mechanisms of Cd2+ sorption were complex. Statistical analysis has revealed that, between all studied factors, temperature treatment was the most important for sorbents increased specific surface area, porosity and cation sorption. Furthermore, NaOH was more effective than H2O2, while the effects produced by variation of other factors were less pronounced. The highest proportion of bio-apatite with desired low crystallinity and high specific surface area was achieved by synergetic effects of chemical treatment with NaOH and thermal treatment at 400 degrees C.