Ganglioside GM1 and GM3 in early human brain development: An immunocytochemical study
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The distribution of GM1 and GM3 gangliosides in human brain development between gestational week (g.w.) 6 and 15 was demonstrated by an immunocytochemical approach using polyclonal anti-GM1 and anti-GM3 antibodies. The first appearance of GM1- and GM3-positive cells was recorded as early as in g.w. 6. Both antibodies labeled the cells in the ventricular zone of the telencephalic wall, with radially oriented fibers toward the pial surface, which represent radial glia cells with glia fibers. The intensive GM3 immunoreactivity was also exhibited in proliferating cells in the ventricular zone between g.w. 6 and 12. During the period from g.w. 12 to 15, characterized by a rapid multiplication of neurons and glia cells, an increased number of GM1- and GM3-positive cells was observed. Prominent GM1 ganglioside staining was observed at the surface of the cell bodies in the ventricular zone. Besides surface labeling in migrating cells, GM1 immunoreactivity was identified inside the soma in the ...regions of cortical plate and subplate. GM1 immunoreactivity was more pronounced on the membrane of neuronal cells migrating along radial glia fibers, especially at the contact site between neuronal and glial cells. The GM3 ganglioside was localized mostly inside the soma, showing a granular immunoreactivity pattern. Our observations confirm the presence of GM1 and GM3 gangliosides in neuronal and glial cells in early human brain development. The involvement. especially of GM1 ganglioside in glia-neuronal contacts during migration of neuroblasts to their final destination, as well as the presence of GM3 ganglioside in proliferative cells in the ventricular zone of the telencephalic wall was also recorded.