Levels of MicroRNA Heterogeneity in Cancer Biology
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, involved in the silencing of messenger RNA (mRNA) translation. The importance of miRNA signatures in disease screening, prognosis, and progression of different tumor types and subtypes is increasing. miRNA expression levels change depending on numerous factors. In this review, we are describing the circumstances under which miRNA levels can change, these are named levels of heterogeneity of miRNAs. miRNAs can have oncogenic, tumor suppressive, or both roles depending on tumor type and target mRNA whose translation they silence. The expression levels of a single miRNA may vary across different cancer types and subtypes, indicating that a miRNA signature may be tissue specific. miRNA levels of expression also vary during disease formation and propagation, indicating the presence of a time profile for their expression. The complexity of the miRNA-mRNA interference network mirrors different genetic and epigenetic ch...anges that influence miRNA and mRNA availability to each other, and hence, their binding ability. The potential role of miRNAs as biomarkers is two-fold; first, for monitoring of the phases of cancer pathogenesis, and second, to characterize the particular type/subtype of cancer. It is important that a particular miRNA should be characterized by examining as many types and subtypes of cancers as are available, as well as being extracted from different types of samples, in order to obtain a complete picture of its behavior and importance in the disease pathology.
Izvor:Molecular Diagnosis and Therapy, 2017, 21, 5, 511-523
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