Solid-phase extraction of multi-class pharmaceuticals from environmental water samples onto modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes followed by LC-MS/MS
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In this paper, pristine and chemically treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were employed as solid-phase extraction sorbents for the isolation and enrichment of multi-class pharmaceuticals from the surface water and groundwater, prior to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Thirteen pharmaceuticals that belong to different therapeutical classes (erythromycin, azithromycin, sulfamethoxazole, diazepam, lorazepam, carbamazepine, metoprolol, bisoprolol, enalapril, cilazapril, simvastatin, clopidogrel, diclofenac) and two metabolites of metamizole (4-acetylaminoantipyrine and 4-formylaminoantipyrine) were selected for this study. The influence of chemical treatment on MWCNT surface characteristics and extraction efficiency was studied, and it was shown that HCl treatment of MWCNT leads to a decrease in the amount of surface oxygen groups and at the same time favorably affects the efficiency toward extraction of selected pharmaceuticals. After the optimization o...f the SPE procedure, the following conditions were chosen: 50 mg of HCl-treated MCWNT as a sorbent, 100 mL of water sample at pH 6, and 15 mL of the methanol-dichloromethane mixture (1:1, v/v) as eluent. Under optimal conditions, high recoveries (79-119%), as well as low detection (0.2 to 103 ng L-1) and quantitation (0.5-345 ng L-1) limits, were obtained. The optimized method was applied to the analysis of five surface water and two groundwater samples, and three pharmaceuticals were detected, the antiepileptic drug carbamazepine and two metabolites of antipyretic metamizole.