Influence of a High-fat Diet on Cardiac iNOS in Female Rats
Obradović, Milan M.
Pitt, Samantha J.
Stewart, Alan J.
Radak, Đorđe J.
Isenović, Esma R.
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Background: Overexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is a key link between high-fat (HF) diet induced obesity and cardiovascular disease. Oestradiol has cardioprotective effects that may be mediated through reduction of iNOS activity/expression. Methods: In the present study, female Wistar rats were fed a standard diet or a HF diet (42% fat) for 10 weeks. iNOS gene and protein expressions were measured in heart tissue. HF-fed rats exhibited a significant increase in cardiac iNOS mRNA by 695% (p LT 0.05), iNOS protein level by 248% (p LT 0.01), without changes in nitrate/nitrite levels. Expression of CD36 protein in plasma membranes was increased by 37% (p LT 0.05), while the concentration of free fatty acids (FFA) was reduced by 25% (p LT 0.01) in HF-fed rats. Expression of the p50 subunit of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF kappa B-p50) in heart was increased by 77% (p LT 0.01) in HF-fed rats. Expression of protein kinase B (Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/...2 (ERK1/2) were unchanged between the groups. There was a significant increase in the ratio of phospho-Akt/total Akt but not for phospho-ERK1/2/total ERK1/2 in HF-fed rats. Estrogen receptor-levels (by 50%; p LT 0.05) and serum oestradiol concentrations (by 35%; p LT 0.05) were shown to be significantly reduced in HF-fed rats. Results and Conclusion: Our results revealed that a HF diet led to increased iNOS expression, most likely via a mechanism involving Akt and NF kappa B-p50 proteins. Decreased levels of oestradiol and ER protein in the HF-fed group, in combination with increased iNOS levels are consistent with the hypothesis that oestradiol has a cardioprotective effect through its ability to regulate iNOS expression.
Keywords:Cardioprotection / cardiovascular disease / oestradiol / inducible nitric oxide synthase / insulin resistance / obesity
Source:Current Vascular Pharmacology, 2017, 15, 5, 491-500
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