Lymphocyte Levels of Redox-Sensitive Transcription Factors and Antioxidative Enzymes as Indicators of Pro-Oxidative State in Depressive Patients
Đorđević, Jelena D.
Tatalović, Nikola R.
Radoičić, Marija B.
Maric, Nadja P.
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Background: Oxidative stress is reliably observed in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, molecular data on the principal cellular redox-sensitive transcriptional factors and the levels of their downstream-regulated antioxidant enzymes in MDD are scarce. Methods: In the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of subjects with a current episode of MDD (n = 30) and healthy controls (n = 35), we investigated alterations in the levels of redox-sensing nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) protein, its inhibitor Keap1, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B), along with their cognate downstream effectors, the antioxidant enzymes (AOEs): manganese and copper zinc superoxide dismutase (MnSOD and CuZnSOD, respectively), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GLR). Results: MDD subjects exhibited higher levels of Nrf2 and its regulator Keap1, as well as NF-kappa B in the cytoplasm of PBMC compared to controls. This state was further reflected... by increased levels of MnSOD, CuZnSOD and CAT proteins and by the lack of correlation between MnSOD and CAT, which could indicate impaired oxidative detoxification capacity in MDD patients. Moreover, increased levels of MnSOD, CuZnSOD and CAT in MDD patients positively correlated with levels of Nrf2, while increased levels of SODs were also positively related to NF-kappa B. There were no differences regarding the levels of GPx and GLR proteins, but the ratio of GLR/GPx was reduced, suggesting diminished capacity of GPx in antioxidative defence in PBMC of MDD subjects. Conclusion: These data provide evidence that MDD is characterized by up-regulation of redox-sensitive transcriptional factors (Nrf2 and NF-kappa B) and AOEs (MnSOD, CuZnSOD and CAT), indicating pro-oxidative state in the PBMC of MDD patients. (C) 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel